Friday, November 25, 2011

Genetics of the Wandering Indian


We have 99 % same genes as any other Human,
And 96 % same as a Chimpanzee..
Howz that for Perspective ;o)

Since I started writing this blog, my endeavor has been to explore our rich ancient heritage utilizing as many different Scientific disciplines as I could. In the current post, I'm gonna use Genetics to help us understand the Genetic make-up of the various populations inhabiting India today and try to understand our origins.

Genes are the Storehouse of all our Information, the Heritage of our Ancestors and the Inheritance of our Future generations. There is no way that genetic studies can be questioned and the study of Genetics can perhaps be the only conclusive way to define the movement of human beings on this planet.

Even though I won't go deep into mythology this time, yet the inspiration of this topic has been a verse from the Kurma Puraan - In Bharatavarsha women and men display diverse colors, worship various gods and perform many different duties. The full length of their lives is said to be a hundred years, and live their lives according to virtue or vice.

Ancient literature mentions many different races inhabiting this planet and Archaeological sites such as Bhimbetka Rock Caves testify to the presence of Homo sapiens in India by at least 80,000 BCE - much before they were documented anywhere else in the world (besides Africa of course).

 

Bhimbetka Caves, Madhya Pradesh, India




But WHEN and HOW did Early Man reach India from Africa?

We learnt in a previous post (Evolution in Dashavtar) how modern Human-beings evolved from Primate ancestors. The currently accepted scientific belief is that this development took place in the African continent from where Homo-sapiens started spreading outwards.

This Out of Africa migration theory states that beginning around 100,000-70,000 years BP (Before Present), Modern Humans started spreading to different parts of the globe replacing the earlier local hominids like Nenderthal Man and Homo erectus.

The study of Genetic markers shows us that irrespective of Region/Religion/Color and Caste, Indians are the closest to Africans, more than ANY other population in the World! This genetic relatedness sugests that India was the FIRST stop for human beings coming out of Africa!!

For me the significance lies in this understanding that modern Humans coming out of Africa, spread to the rest of the World via India. It was from the sub-continent that waves of people migrated to other parts of Europe, Asia, Australia, and even the Americas. Indeed MODERN Human-being had reached India at least by 80,000 years BP; Europe by 40,000 years BP; and the Americas just about 14,500 years ago.



Out of Africa Migration


For those who have a background in Biology, I'm sharing a tidbit of technical information. Most Genetic studies involve tracing two types of DNA - the Y-chromosome or Y-DNA and the Mitochondrial or mtDNA. While, Y-DNA is passed solely from a father to his sons, the mtDNA is passed from a mother to all her offspring.
 


Y-DNA                                                mtDNA


Since mother's DNA is passed to ALL her children, it can be traced backwards by studying the chromosomal make-up of one's mothers' mother and so on right into the past until all lines converge on one person. Using this technique, Geneticists have actually been able to trace the First Maternal Ancestor of Mankind to Africa and call her the Mitochondrial Eve.
 

The Mother of Mankind traced to Africa


Scholars like Thangaraj et al.; Macauley et al have conducted series of studies on the Mt DNA of indigenous people of Malaysia and Andaman islands and these corroborate the notion that our African ancestors took a coastal route along the Indian Ocean around 65,000 BP to populate these regions.

According to Forster and Matsumura's assessment of the genetic evidence, ENTIRE continents of Asia, Europe, and the Americas were colonized by descendants of this initial group which perhaps included as little as four-five hundred women!



Coastal Route Out of Africa



According to a study conducted by Macauley et al in 2005, the entire landmass of Europe and Middle East was settled from an early offshoot of this migration that moved in once the Ice melted and climate in these regions improved. Another interesting study with a comprehensive analysis can be read here: {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC379225/}.

British Geneticist, Stephen Oppenheimer believes India to be the origin of all the Eurasian Eves and he claims that the ENTIRE populations of Central Asia, Middle East and Europe present today, have actually descended from four mtDNA lines that originated in the Indian sub-continent 50,000-100,000 years ago!!





This is not to say that human beings coming out of Africa only settled in India. Of course there were other populations coming out of Africa as well but presumably, we were the ONLY ones to survive and propagate throughout the WORLD. Another research regarding Haplogroup W also comes to the same conclusion as is evident from the image below:



Spread of Haplogroup W from Africa to India to the World




The reason for that is quite eloquently expressed by the famous sci-fi author Arthur C. Clarke in one of his bestsellers - In four great waves, with 200,000 years between their crests, the Ice Ages swept by, leaving their mark on the ENTIRE globe. Outside the tropics, cold glaciers slew those who had prematurely left their ancestral home; and everywhere they winnowed out the creatures who could not adapt.

Presumably, WE were the only ones who survived this 'winnowing' and were left with the responsibility to POPULATE the World!




DNA and Diversity

With this ancient DNA comes the ubiquitous DIVERSITY of our people.. Our scriptures record a plural society since time immemorial proving that we have always been a potpourri of different colors, cultures and appearances. However, such a situation also makes it really difficult to understand our Genetic relatedness.

 
Different Morphological Races of India



The races differ in appearance but NOT in genetic parameters. Our present diversity evolved as waves of  initial settlers moved both towards North as well as South of the country, all the time Intermixing and Migrating to OTHER countries.

One of the first studies linking India to Europe dates back to 1999 and was conducted by Estonian biologist Toomas Kivisild, with 14 co-authors from various nationalities. It relied on 550 samples of mtDNA and identified Haplogroup "U" as indicating a deep connection between Indian and Western-Eurasian populations. Now this may lead you to the infamous and now debunked Aryan-Invasion Theory but wait, there's more :)

The same haplogroup "U" was also found in the Lodha and Santhal tribes of Eastern India by Susanta Roychoudhury. According to Kivisild and his co-authors, the Indian and Western Eurasian haplogroup "U" varieties differ profoundly and their split has occurred as early as 50,000 years ago! In other words, yes there is genetic connection between India and Eurasia but a far more ancient one than what the Aryan Invasion presupposes!





Similar is the case with mtDNA Haplogroup "M" which occurs in about 60% of Indians irrespective of geographical location, 40% in Central Asia and even in American Indians but only 0.6% of Europeans exhibit the same. In fact, the tribal populations in India have higher frequencies of this haplogroup indicating that they are one of the oldest populations in the world!



Macrohaplogroup M, that represents more than 60% of Indian MtDNA shows following similarities in different populations of the country:

M2 - Most common in Bengal and Tamil Nadu (East and South)
M3 - Rajasthan and Karnataka (West and South-west)
M6 - Kashmir and Assam (North and East)
M18 - Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh (West and South-central)
M25 - Punjab and Kerala!! (North and South)

The study has shown some Hindu caste groups to be genetically closer to Muslims in the same geographical region THAN to their own caste cousins elsewhere in India showing that our current RELIGIOUS differences are merely superficial and people in a specific region are more or less the same.

Genetically we all are the Same! 
 
(Image courtesy Imagesbazaar.com)


Similar findings have been observed in communities residing at diametrically opposite ends of the Nation-

R6 - Most common in Kashmir and Tamil Nadu (North and South)
R1a1 - Punjab and Bengal (North and East)
R2 - Bengal, U. P. and Andhra Pradesh (East, North-central and South-east)
U2a - Punjab and Karnataka (North and South-west)
U2b - Uttar Pradesh and Kerala (North-central and South)
U7 - Punjab and Gujarat (North and West)

More details can be obtained from the following link {Genetics_and_archaeogenetics_of_South_Asia}. Not just studies on Mitochondrial DNA but also the Y-chromosome studies done by Kivilid have revealed similar results. The Y-DNA Haplogroup "M17" or R1a1a regarded till recently as a marker of Aryan Invasion has been found in Dravidian tribes especially Chenchu who also happened to be closely related to the higher caste populations! The diversity in fact deminishes as we move into Central Asia thereby contradicting any supposed 'Male Aryan Invasion' of India especially since these have been present in the population since about 51,000 years ago!





The Genetic map, thus obtained, shows a remarkable amount of heterogeneity within different Indian groups while bringing out even more remarkable RELATEDNESS between groups till now considered to be at the opposite ends of the spectrum. The differences in our appearance are broadly a result of the ADAPTATION to local weather conditions over thousands of years.




Survival of the Fittest

Mankind first developed in Africa, therefore, the first modern humans would have had large number of pigment producing Melanocytes and darker skin. People living in the tropics, directly under the Sun, produce increased quantities of Melanin in their bodies to shield them from the harmful UV rays. Thus, their darker color is a PROTECTIVE mechanism of the body to prevent the incidence of Skin Cancer due to prolonged exposure to Sunlight.

Dark-skinned populations have greater protection against other health problems related to exposure to strong Solar Radiation, including the degradation of Vitamins such as Riboflavins, Carotenoids, Folic Acid etc. Melanin in the Eyes is also protective and people with Gray, Blue and Green eyes are in fact at a HIGHER risk of developing sun-related Ocular problems. 

Ultraviolet B radiation leads to the synthesis of Vitamin D in our skin but can also destroy Folate that is essential for babies growing in the womb. Dark skin protects from Folate destruction allowing normal reproduction and since the UV levels are high year round, there is still enough for the body to produce Vitamin D!

The Natural Selection Hypothesis suggests that lighter skin color evolved to optimize Vitamin D production in extreme northern and southern latitudes. Gradually, as we started moving out of Africa, some groups migrated and settled into cooler climates of Asia and Europe, and the selectivity for Melanin production decreased and mutations appeared, making the skin tone lighter. North or South of 46 degrees latitude, the dark-skin could not produce enough Vitamin D while light-skin could hence it thrived!


Indian skin color varies from Dark to Fair and everything inbetween


The Genetic variations of Mc1r and  SLC24A5 have been shown to be most common among pale-skinned populations. Similarly, tanning evolved so tht when UV - B radiation increases in early spring, the skin gradually darkens and keeps getting darker over the summer. During the winter, as UV radiation wanes, so does the tan allowing appropriate protection against folate destruction yet providing sufficient Vitamin D production.. S

Another example of such adaptation is the smaller extremities observed in the Mountain-dwelling races. This adaptation is summed up in Allen's Law of Genetics which states that the protruding parts of a warm-blooded animal's body (such as the tail, ears, and limbs), are SHORTER in animals of same species from colder regions. In other words, people living in COOLER areas have smaller bodies and flatter features to conserve the precious body heat compared to those living in WARMER climates. 

Over thousands of years, these traits became incorporated in our Genes and successive generations are now born with the same color and features as acquired by their parents. The same is quite evident in the populations dwelling in our Himalayan states.



Mountain dwellers show Allen's rule of Genetics



This doesn't make one race SUPERIOR to the other in any way except for the ability to SURVIVE in a particular environment! All our apparent differences are Nature's GIFTS to ensure survival in the respective climates we are born in and do NOT in any way make us different from each other from inside. The Racial and Ethnic discrimination prevalent in the world is based on such superficial issues that our future generations will laugh at us one day. The hatred being promoted world over today is as detrimental to Humanity as the Nuclear arms race was in the previous decade and the sooner we realize that, the better it is for us.


We are the World



The takeaway from this entire discussion seems to me to be three-pronged -

ONE, of course, is that all the different so called 'races' are extensions of the SAME Species and reflect nature's way to mold us into different shapes just as a potter creates different works of art on his wheel.

SECOND and more pertinent for this blog is that the genetic studies clearly refute Aryan Invasion Theory and indicate that whatever admixture of genes happened in the Indian sub-continent took place very close to the original migrations of Homo sapiens out of Africa.

THIRD and perhaps most startling for me is that we, INDIANS are genetically the OLDEST human inhabitants of this planet outside of Africa. All non-African populations have descended from ancient Indians and therefore not just culturally, even demographically India is the Cradle of Civilization for the Entire World!
 


Jai Ho India!
 



For those who still put faith in the old and outdated 'Aryan Invasion' theory and try to divide the country on racial basis, plz know your roots before promoting political differences between the people of this nation. I conclude this post sharing the poem Bharat-tirtha written by the Nobel Laureate, Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore which beautifully defines the Unity in Diversity of our ancient land:


Oh! Mother, Let me be blessed on the sacred shore of the Sea,
Where the World has gathered to pay reverence to Thee,
With outstretched hands we bow to Divinity,
With Supreme felicity Mother, We worship Thee..

No-one knows who invoked them all,
Who have gathered like currents of mighty rivers,
That dissolve themselves in the Divine Ocean,
Where Aryas-Dravids-Mongols-Pathans detach their Individuality.

Where our heart-strings play an endless tune of Omkar, 
In search of the Supreme, we've penanced for ages,
And oblated our Ego, in the Holy fire,
Throwing away differences, We emerge into Universality.

Come Aryas, Non-Aryas; Hindus and Muslims,
Come Englishmen; Come Christians and Buddhists,
Purify your hearts, Hold hands of the Out-castes.
For the Coronation of our Mother, by this sacred shore of the Sea. 

.
Aum Shanti: Shanti: Shanti:
.

89 comments:

  1. Really a gud job by u,every indian must read...

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  2. @Chaitanya thanx a lot buddy do share it wid other frnds as well :)

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  3. Good topic. Felt wanting more on the same topic :)

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  4. bhai fir to hame us or africa ki citizenship milni hi chahiye...:p

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  5. @Ravi Joshi Lolzzz sirf Africa ki hi nahin bro poore world ki ;)

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  6. @Pritee Mehta well had loads of stuff to write but then the article wud hv bcm more technical!! already i dunno hw many wud understand d genetic bit :P

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  7. Yes... Harrapa n mohenjodaro is r evidnc of it too..

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  8. Thanx Shradha Jha.. the Indus Saraswati civilization of course is one of d oldest but here we r talking abt 50,000 years ago!!!
    Its mind blowing!

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  9. I read tht.. thnks fr sharin ths Vineet Aggarwal :)

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  10. Hey man...how've u been...jus to let u know..ur posts are amazing...have read last 3..will soon complete the backlog ! :-):-) carry on the amazing wrk !

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  11. Thanx a lot for ur appreciation bro, I'm deeply obliged :)

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  12. am quite amazed by the depth of ur articles :):)
    where do u get the info frm dude?? i to hv always been attarcted by it...wanted to know the secrets and here u are unfoldng it for me

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  13. Thanx a lot Abhi :)
    m trying my best... have been researching on diff topics for more than 6 years now.. glad its turnin into smthng worthwhile :)

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  14. I appreciate your efforts Realization among ourself is all what we need

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  15. Thanx a lot buddy.. just tryin to share as much as i can wid everyone!!

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  16. Hari bol!. . . . Very intellgent guy!. .using energy 4rt purpose, thx 4ur al dis knwlege

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  17. Hahaha :D
    Thanx a lot Satya m trying :)

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  18. hmm..no wonder we failed in population control..how can v? wen itz our USP to Populate the world....!!

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  19. fascinating truly :-)

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  20. Thanx Asha Malhotra i myself was fascinated to know all this!!!

    @Sharma Je Links.. m humbled :)

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  21. I have met some Indian men that bear a striking resemblance to the Australian Aborigine. I have also read there are still people in parts of India that have genetic similarities with the early Australians.

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  22. I'm sure there r loads of such linkages between the Indian and Australian populations!! SOmeone shud tak it up as a research topic and find out more abt it..

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  23. @Vineet

    It is a very intelligent article. You are doing a great job. Carry on.

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  24. nice and interesting reading to know at a glance the whole story.

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  25. Thanx Upendra n d other guy :)
    trying my best!!

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  26. Mrs Venkata Naga Lakshmi KrovidiDecember 1, 2011 at 1:46 PM

    astounding- shocking

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  27. My question is why we start believeing in the beginning that earliest man was born in Africa only? why cant early man could have migrated from India to africa?
    so far as North and South Indian stuff is concerned, genetically 99% of all indians north or south of all casts n religions are the same.

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  28. i dun believe in all useless things specially north n south indian :)these r craps things like aryan and dravidan theory to make india fight within :)

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  29. @Mrs. Lakshmi indeed it is!!

    @Tunes of Life, I agree with you :)

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  30. @Jay well its not just us, all the countries of d world wud wanna claim the ancient roots of humanity.. but as per the evidence till today, the chromosomal n genetic studies have led ALL scientists again n again towards Africa.. In future, we may get some different findings but til now this is the accepted belief.

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  31. We have a word for sanskrit, actually three words, but does not literally translate to the word sanskrit. They are Otakahe Oyate Wanzi(wanji--either is correct). Literally translates Many People or Nations are One. For myself, I find a great peace when I visit the temple. A lot of great healings began there for me, the temple in PIttsburgh, Pennsylvania. I haven't been yet to the temple here in Kentucky. From what I understand it is the only Vishnu Shiva Temple in this country. It's very interesting, to be in all places, Louisville, Kentucky. I have a strange felling that the temple is built very near to the remnants of a Miwatani Village--People of the Long Boat, also known as the Mandan aka Children of the Sun. The entire Ohio River Valley Region was once the home of the Wazhazhe comprised of more than 21 patrilneal bands and then matrilineal clans from those bands. I am anxious to see what you come up with.

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  32. @Charlie 'Children of the Sun' is an epithet used by a lot of ancient races.. in fact the most glorious civilization in India is believed to have been founded by the Suryavanshis or the 'Descendants of the Sun'.. m working on a post regarding Hindu cosmology and m gng thru some material from Native American beliefs.. would b great if i can get some help from u regarding the same.. :)

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  33. hello vineet sir i just got very interested in our spiritual scriptures just a few months back and was praying to lord to give me something interesting to read so as to quench my spiritual thirst.And thus i came across your blog where every aspect of hindu mythology is detailed/decoded so beautifully.Please suggest me from where to begin,i mean there are so many sacred scriptures of ours plus i have a query who is supreme lord?Is it AADINARAYNA/MAHAVISHNU or some ONE else?Please reply,eagerly waiting for it.GODBLESS.

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  34. Hi there.. thanx a lot for your appreciation!! I'm just trying to present whatever I have read in a scientific manner.. regarding your question about the Supreme God, yes Lord Vishnu/Krishna is referred to as the Supreme Lord in most of the scriptures.. u may start ur own journey towards spiritual research with the Bhagvad Geeta and Srimad BHagvat PUraan.. those r my personal favorites..

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  35. Yeah!! It 's really true.............. I have done my research in this.... Our ancestors were aryans who came were closest relatives to Africans.. and their descendants only inhabited whole world.... so, there is no problem in saying Early INDIANS gave birth to ALL Non-African races! I have a very good map on aryan migration (made by me) in which it shows how the descendants of early Indians (Aryans) ihabited different places in the world.................... I will soon provide these things in my website http://thearyans.webs.com/ ............ It 's not ready yet.... only home page is ready......................... The site which you have provided is really a great site... I got someone who believes in these things...

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  36. Cool.. wud love to c ur map someday... when wil d website b ready?

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  37. This is awesome... every indian should read it!!

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  38. Hey the article is really nice. Can you please provide some references though? That will be a great help.

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    1. Sure, Check the following links:

      1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC379225/
      2. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/308/5724/965.summary
      3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetics_and_archaeogenetics_of_South_Asia
      4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_N_%28mtDNA%29
      5. http://forwhattheywereweare.blogspot.in/2010/10/on-high-mobility-of-mtdna-macro.html
      6. http://forwhattheywereweare.blogspot.in/2010/10/some-key-archaeological-papers-on.html
      7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC379225/#RF46
      8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11967156
      9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1801212/
      10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8702211
      11. http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci/nov2012/911.pdf
      12. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/23/3/683.full.pdf
      13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_mitochondrial_DNA_haplogroup
      14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC516768/
      15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_M_%28mtDNA%29
      16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Coastal_Migration
      17. http://www.rediff.co.in/news/2002/nov/21spec.htm

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  39. Why why did it ruin it...... I won't able to marry anyone if all are my sisters....... If my girlfriend saw this then I'll be her bhaiya... Noooo

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    1. Well its an extremely distant connection so dont worry abt ur gf calling u bhaiya (unless of course she wants to) :P

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  40. Just found one post. What is the truth then?

    http://indiafirsthand.com/2010/10/04/hinduism-in-india-originated-from-steppes/

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    1. he discovery of settlements does not prove Aryans moved INTO India.. they could very well have moved OUT of India and settled there!

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  41. Great work done Vineet !

    Sam Thakur
    Canada.

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  42. i have already sent a detailed e-mail ..whether you have read it or not , i don't know...i believe in krishna's saying "CHATUR VARNYAM MAYA SRISHTAM GUNA KARMA VIBAVASAHO" which divides humans into four according to Guna and Karma...Guna comes from the way one eats satvic, rajasic and tamasic food and karma is according to the food we consume. If not skin color also, we find distinct characteristics between nations , between races if not in india but in the entire world...these brahmin, kshatriya vaishya and shudra differences hold good not in india but in the entire world as asians are intellectuals, westerners are executors or administrators(that's why we follow british administrative system and the infrastructure developed by british), chinese (good business men...they came via silk route to india..after that only from india we went to china for trade...in trade still now mangoloid or hun race is superior (they might be a combination of warrior+business+worker class since africans and westerners also settled in south china and north china and spread out to other parts (Cacausians and Astroloid Asians and Negroids) and Africa (is still having a good work force which in my opinion built our temples, great structures in the world and pyramids)

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  43. if the four main races which lived previously in india and due to their mixture only we are different shades of brown and black..therefore because of gene degradation, we lost all pristine qualities a particular race has... if we allow other races to settle in india, india will develop just like south africa, america, australia and like singapore, malaysia and other south east asian nations.

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  44. Great post, well researched as always. Dr Vineet I have been intrigued by symbology in Hinduism please write a post on that, it will be great if you can throw some light on swastika and how it found its way to Germany. I have read a lot about it but never got a satisfactory reply. Could you share some thoughts on this? Keep writing ..each post is so well researched love it

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    1. Thanx a lot Harsh.. will do it as soon as possible :)

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  45. That means All the Indians have been descended solely from Africa and Africans are our ancestors?
    Amazing.. isn't it?

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  46. Dear vineet
    First of all i want to say thanks for these huge collections of researches related to Hinduism. I strongly believe in our cultural and want to do some thing in this field. give me your email id.There is description about formation of seven hahadeeps in balmiki ramayan by a king of suryavanshi. this can also be a research topic. Modern science say that india was the part of south pole. it slowly moved upward side and formed himalyan range. I am not agree with this. can you share certain information on on this issue?

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    1. Dear Mohit, I have mentioned the formation of Dvipas in one of the posts.. I guess India or the one on Jambudvip. Please read the latter for more on the formation of Himalayas :)

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  47. Hi Vineet, I have come across your blog merely two weeks ago, and trust me I found it so interesting that I am almost half way of your blogs.
    Regarding the above topic, if I believe in the theory of Human evolution, then what we are today is the result of continues evolution from a single cell. Homosapien started to migrate out of Africa some 100,000-70,000 years BP (Before Present). Per evolution theory it is natural for them to keep evolving and becoming more adaptable to nature and not to forget smarter and wiser. So does it not mean that Homosapien who started from Africa, came to India and further migrated to entire parts of Europe and Asia in today time who look different to their ancestors in Africa in color, size of skull, body shape are result of evolution of Homosapien? (Please note that under no circumstances I am trying to prove different color people have different intelligence, its just came in my mind that if Human being has always evolved and evolved to become smarter then my argument has some valid point)

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    1. well yeah your argument does have a valid point but lets not forget evolution takes millions of years to reach this level so the different human races today not really improvements on the previous ones but just an example of inter-species adaptation according to the environment they are living in :)

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  48. Hi I came across your blog just yesterday and its really amazing.However I thought regarding the human race moving out of Africa. I am not sure if I am thinking correctly but as its been said the that sour then part of India was actually a part of the African continent which over a period of time have been connected to India subcontinent that is quit possible that original Africa race didn't not travel at the first place but got connected to India as a part of geographical drifting of land mass and the race must have multiples here and spread across the world latter. However I m not sure there was human race already evolved at the time for land drifting

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  49. Well it could have been plausible but according to current scientific belief, India dissociated from Africa slowly and crashed into Asia about 65 million years ago and modern humans moved out of Africa just about 60,000 years ago so seems unlikely unless some new evidence comes to fore.

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  50. If you read Gene Matlock's article 'Who was Abraham' and numerous researches that is not 'Euro-centric' you will find that what you have researched and compiled makes clear sense and truth. With advanced technologies, knowledge and an open mindedness in research it is getting harder for people who promote and hold on to 'fairy tales' about which ethnic/races is high or low. We are all the same. Truth will prevail.

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  51. Have always pondered on something that we all see and know but not much science or explanation is available to it, which is: why do people of India have 'straight' noses and not 'flat' like that of the Chines or African brothers/sisters. Although there is some explaination for the oriental type eyes of the Chines (or mongoloid) people, that is: cold blizzards for hunders of thousands of years constantly hitting on the face has shaped (due to environmental factors) the eyes to build fat on the eye lids and almost closed. While if you see the Eskimo's eyes has almost a straight horizontal slit because of seeing strong white glaring snow (environment) constantly for thousands of years. It does make some sense. While there is a connection (that I beleive) to the Toba incident (2 million years ago) which changed the shape of the eyes, nose, skin etc of people that lived where most of its ashes were deposited (mainly India). Before I go further to give my explanations I would love to see what insights your research has or even your readers have. Thanks

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    1. Hi there.. I know the Toba supervolcano is believed to have caused a genetic bottleneck but how it may have resulted in the sharp noses of indians is not really forthcoming. The Mongoloid races of course have an explanation for the nose that they have today and so do the Negroid races. It would be worthwhile to hear your explanation of the change that occurred in Indians :)

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    2. Hi Dr. Vineet hope you had a chance to get some idea of Gene Matlocks article mentioned. I also replied with an explanation of the small but interesting reactions of Toba on our ancestors but I'm not sure I sent it right. I will try again.
      You know, your website provides us Indians, (who have lived away for generations from our culture/country and exposed to a one-sided-rubbish that is contrary to what we have always beleived from our ancient wisdom) an avenue to share, discuss by like minded Indians. I commend you for that. The opinions of your readers does not neccessarily have to be yours but as long as it is respectful, caring and sharing for all who visit your portal it is a good thing.

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    3. Thanks a ton! Sorry have been caught up with my booklaunch so cudnt reply earlier :)

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  52. Wow.. So much research! Hats off doc! :)

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  53. Migration occurred through continental shift. Ex. Lemuria

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  54. The Toba incident happened exactly around 74,000 years ago and not 2million that I mistakenly put in my earlier post. As we know it, it is the biggest natural disaster in the last 2 million years.
    The volcanic ashes brought both good and bad. Good thing is, it deposited rich minerals, ash and elements over 10 -20 feet deep in many parts of India that have enriched the soil and made it one of the richest soils in the world, where anything grows easily. On the other hand the eruptions killed many early humans whose numbers dropped to less than a 1000 families. This happened during the last ice age which is between 150,000 to about 20,000-15,000yrs. (Which also means most parts of the northern hemisphere was covered in ice and human life would have possibly only survived around the equator like Africa, India, Australasia region). The ashes further caused dust clouds and blocked the sun where temperatures plummeted even further for many years. The unbearable dust, gas and chemical elements would have continued to kill life for many more years. We know for sure some lucky humans survived and were definitely in the Jawalpuram Caves in India, as researches from around the world have recently found large remains/evidence of human remains like skulls, bones, tools, etc around the post-and-pre Toba incident in these caves. Though the caves provided safety and shelter, these humans had to come out to gather/search for food.
    Now let’s imagine how this ash, dust, gas, fumes, etc, would have affected just the Noses of these early humans (originally from Africa, with a flat nasal septum, in Jawalpuram).
    (Humans can be deprived of food for a considerably long time but not breathing). Hence every time, everywhere their noses interacted with the dense dust and ash for possibly hundreds of years, until dust density gradually reduced.
    Reactions/actions:
    • Continually irritated, bloated, swollen, inflammation, bleeding, etc
    • The need to constantly rub the dust off or pull on the nasal Septum that separates the 2 nasal passages for generations…
    • Nature’s reaction to help grow more hair in nostrils to block the increased new environmental change (dust) in slow stages.
    • Natures reaction to help reshape nose for each struggling and suffocating breath for many years. Like enlarged nasal passage, narrower entry, …
    • Doctors, scientist, anthropologist, psychologist, would probably add further to the list here with their assessment/opinion of the reactions with their relevant skills, knowledge…
    • In short there was a constant targeted distortion, rubbing, twitching, pulling on the nose by every living human there at that time for a very long time, until they adapted. This is even continued, though in a very small way by mothers as a tradition, on their babies when they bathe and wash their faces (in India), to gently hold and pull the baby’s tender septum so it grows to a very and well pronounced (‘straight’ or ‘sharp’ nose like modern Indian people’s noses)septum.
    • On the other hand those humans, at that time, who were not exposed to this dust, like those of Australia, Africa and the many Asiatic islands did not have the need to distort, struggle or constantly clean their noses and have thus retained the ‘flat nose’ or flat septum from the original African brothers/humans.
    Eyes
    The extra-long and naturally thick eye lashes and brows (in general) – nature’s reaction to help grow more eye lashes in a constantly dusty environment for generations…? The Indian eyes are so hypnotic, especially women with a bindhi.
    Skin
    Like our very own and my favourite comedian Russell Peters puts it as a joke “God created Indians and made them a hairy lot although we are in a hot environment”
    Nature’s reaction possibly to help towards reactive and harmful dust constantly sticking on to the skin…?

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  55. But doesn't it contradict the theory of Manu and Satrupa I mean in vedic text wasn't it mentioned that asuras, suras,nagas and few other living beings had same father something like that are Dna are similar with rats and cows too but then that doesn't mean we evolved from them also Ramayan which says Millions yr ago story talks about Vanar sena too ? and there some intermixing possible b/w humans and them who knows they migrated to africa from here and maybe are ancestor were humans I don't believe in such evolution theory I do believe living being existed on land but sometimes its hard to believe on we orginating from Monkey but I guess after 10, 000 yrs we will surely know seeing the evolution of chimps maybe

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    1. No it doesn't.. the very first humans came from Swayambhu Manu the name implying that he presented himself from Brahma's body. The devastating, faith as etc were all children of Kashyap rishi who was a grandson of Brahma.. plz check the post on Creation for more clarity :)

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    2. Oh.. I have, most of your posts,but it would take time to understand all these theories but very nice blog of yours I definitely enjoyed reading it :)

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  56. First man was Swayambhu, but then his descendants mixed with other races. Also the first man Vaivasvata of present Manavantara was a son of Surya who was from Aditi who was from Daksha.

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    1. True that.. have written a complete post on different Manus you should check it out.

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  57. So cool... indeed the future generations are gonna laugh at us.

    I wonder why Asian people have narrow eyes though and why people have different hair colour like red blonde brown black

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    1. :) Well Asian populations received these modifications due to Allen's rule that I mentioned in the article which keeps getting transmitted now to successive generations. Hair and eye color being transmitted by recessive alleles obey only the rules of genetics.

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  58. I get mesmerised reading your posts.Great work! In fact our mythology is scientific indeed,which most of us are not aware of.Keep it up.

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